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On the edge of Europe - Military developments in Britain since the end of the bipolar world order

In this paper I analyse the military developments and the strategic planning of the United Kingdom since the end of the Cold War. A two-phase change can be seen in British military strategy: the first straight after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the second, triggered by increasing military challenges of the 2020s. Consequently, after the end of the bipolar world order London tried to scale down its military capabilities and shrink its defence budget. Yet, with the destabilisation of the US-dominated global system Britain is now thriving to ensure its security and to protect the stability of the European continent, hence increasing military spending. Moreover, despite its position of being on the edge of Europe the United Kingdom seeks to establish military cooperation with its fellow European nations as well as to maintain the very special relationship it cultivates with the United States. All the while counter-acting the increasing assertiveness of China, and the Russian ambitions in Ukraine.

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Military modernisation in Romania (post-1990)

Abstract: After the democratisation of the country following the Revolution of 1989, Romania inherited a vast military force both in terms of manpower and equipment, albeit riddled with problems of ineffective logistics, untrained personnel, and outdated weaponry. The following decades saw the gradual downsizing of the Romanian armed forces as well as the rapid decommissioning of the old military technology, with few modernisation programmes to speak of, primarily due to financial shortcomings. After Romania’s NATO accession, several large modernization projects were launched, yet frequent accusations of corruption slowed down or halted many of the procurement programmes, while the country’s defence spending regularly fell short of the required levels. The second half of the 2010s brought about the revival of Romanian military modernisation programmes as well as it saw the defence budget increase notably, and while the most significant acquisitions seem to have difficulties to go forward, the invasion of Ukraine in 2022 shifted the focus back to them again.

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In the early 2000s, several reports were made for the government and decision-makers indicating that the Hungarian Defence Forces and their capabilities would become highly outdated by the 2010s witho...

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